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Proximal and distal intent: Toward a new folk theory of intentional action.

Inferences regarding actors’ intentions play an important role in social and moral cognition. Numerous studies have operationalized intentionality in a binary fashion (i.e., an act is either “intentional” or “unintentional”). The authors suggest, however, that when determining the degree to which an act was intentional, lay observers consider two independent dimensions: proximal intent (the actor’s focus on the means) and distal intent (the actor’s focus on the end). They describe how the proximal intent/distal intent (PIDI) approach allows researchers to understand observers’ intent-related judgments with greater precision. The authors review studies highlighting a range of variables that lead perceivers to prioritize either proximal intent or distal intent in their social and moral judgment. They describe how previous findings in the literature may be reinterpreted in light of the PIDI framework. Finally, they suggest ways in which the PIDI framework implies novel directions for future research on moral cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

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Power and persuasion: Processes by which perceived power can influence evaluative judgments.

The present review focuses on how power—as a perception regarding the self, the source of the message, or the message itself—affects persuasion. Contemporary findings suggest that perceived power can increase or decrease persuasion depending on the circumstances and thus might result in both short-term and long-term consequences for behavior. Given that perceptions of power can produce different, and even opposite, effects on persuasion, it might seem that any relationship is possible and thus prediction is elusive or impossible. In contrast, the present review provides a unified perspective to understand and organize the psychological literature on the relationship between perceived power and persuasion. To accomplish this objective, present review identifies distinct mechanisms by which perceptions of power can influence persuasion and discusses when these mechanisms are likely to operate. In doing so, this article provides a structured approach for studying power and persuasion via antecedents, consequences, underlying psychological processes, and moderators. Finally, the article also discusses how power can affect evaluative judgments more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

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Emotional oddball: A review on variants, results, and mechanisms.

It is of the utmost importance for an organism to rapidly detect and react to changes in its environment. The oddball paradigm has repeatedly been used to explore the underlying cognitive and neurophysiological components of change detection. It is also used to investigate the special role of emotional content in perception and attention (emotional oddball paradigm; EOP). In this article, the EOP is systematically reviewed. The EOP is, for instance, used as a tool to address questions as to what degree emotional deviant stimuli trigger orientation reactions, which role the emotional context plays in the processing of deviant information, and how the processing of emotional deviant information differs interindividually (including clinical populations). Two main variants with regard to the emotionality of standards and deviants are defined. Most of the identified EOP studies report EEG data but an overview of behavioral data is also provided in this review. We integrate evidence from 99 EOP experiments and shape the EOP’s theoretical background under the consideration of other paradigms’ mechanisms and theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

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Effects of psychopharmacological treatment with antipsychotic drugs on the vascular system.

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Effects of psychopharmacological treatment with antipsychotic drugs on the vascular system.

Vascul Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 06;:

Authors: Kahl KG, Westhoff-Bleck M, Krüger THC

Abstract
Psychopharmacological treatment with antipsychotic drugs is an essential part of guideline-based treatment strategies in psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and delusional disorders. Other mental disorders frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs are bipolar disorders, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, antipsychotic drugs are often given in emergency and surgical units for the treatment of metabolic or postoperative delirium. Antipsychotic drugs can exert direct and indirect effects on the vascular system, potentially leading to severe complications such as thromboembolism. Therefore, knowledge of vascular side effects of antipsychotic drugs is important for clinicians. This clinical orientated review article covers direct and indirect effects of antipsychotics on the vascular system.

PMID: 28888918 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The potential impact of biochemical mediators on telomere attrition in major depressive disorder and implications for future study designs: A narrative review.

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The potential impact of biochemical mediators on telomere attrition in major depressive disorder and implications for future study designs: A narrative review.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Aug 15;225:630-646

Authors: Manoliu A, Bosch OG, Brakowski J, Brühl AB, Seifritz E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been proposed to represent a “disease of premature aging”, which is associated with certain biomarkers of cellular ageing and numerous other age-related diseases. Over the last decade, telomere length (TL) arose as a surrogate for cellular aging. Recent data suggests that TL might be reduced in patients with MDD, however, results are still inconclusive. This might be explained by the lack of assessment of potential biochemical mediators that are directly associated with telomere shortening and frequently observed in patients with MDD.
METHODS: A narrative review was performed. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies.
RESULTS: We identified four major mediators, which are recurrently reported in patients with MDD and are associated with reduced TL: inflammation/oxidative stress, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic dysbalance including insulin resistance, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These mediators are also mutually associated and were not systematically assessed in current studies investigating TL and MDD, which might explain inconclusive findings across current literature. Finally, we discuss possible ways to assess those mediators and potential implications of such approaches for future research.
LIMITATIONS: The majority of identified studies had cross-sectional designs and used heterogeneous methods to assess TL and associated relevant biochemical mediators.
CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the complex interactions between biochemical mediators, somatic comorbidities and shortened telomeres in patients with MDD might further specify the pathophysiology-based conceptualization and, based on that, personalized treatment of MDD.

PMID: 28889049 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Interaction between FKBP5 gene and childhood trauma on psychosis, depression and anxiety symptoms in a non-clinical sample.

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Interaction between FKBP5 gene and childhood trauma on psychosis, depression and anxiety symptoms in a non-clinical sample.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017 Aug 26;85:200-209

Authors: de Castro-Catala M, Peña E, Kwapil TR, Papiol S, Sheinbaum T, Cristóbal-Narváez P, Ballespí S, Barrantes-Vidal N, Rosa A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been associated with a heightened risk for presenting clinical and non-clinical psychopathology in adulthood. Genes related with the stress response, such as the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), are plausible candidates moderating the effects of childhood trauma on the emergence of such symptoms later on. The present study aimed to explore the moderating role of FKBP5 genetic variability on the association of different types of childhood trauma with subclinical psychosis, depression and anxiety in a non-clinical sample.
METHODS: Schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms and childhood trauma were assessed in 808 young adults. Two FKBP5 haplotypic blocks were detected: block 1 (rs3800373 – rs9296158 – rs1360780) and block 2 (rs9470080 – rs4713916). Subjects were classified in two groups according to whether they carried or not the risk haplotype previously described in the literature (block 1: CAT and block 2: TA). Linear regression analyses were used to study (i) the main effects of childhood trauma and FKBP5 haplotype blocks and (ii) their interaction effects on the mentioned forms of psychopathology.
RESULTS: All childhood trauma scales, except sexual abuse, were associated with schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms. None of the analysed symptoms was associated with the main effects of FKBP5 genetic variability. However an interaction effect between block 1 and physical abuse was observed on anxiety, with lower scores in CAT carriers. This effect was driven by SNP 1 and 2. Moreover, an interaction effect between block 2 and physical abuse was identified on the variables tapping depressive and anxiety symptoms. Specifically, non-TA carrier subjects who were exposed to physical abuse were found to be at higher risk for depressive and anxiety symptoms. These effects were driven by SNP 5. No interaction effect was observed for the other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that exposure to childhood physical abuse may increase the risk for sub-clinical depressive and anxiety symptoms depending on FKBP5 genetic variability. Further research is needed to better elucidate the role of FKBP5 on mental health in clinical and non-clinical cohorts.

PMID: 28889074 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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