Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative counselor competence is important for counselors to work effectively with sexual minority clients, but the level of competence is unclear among counselors in China, given the more conservative sociocultural climate. To understand the factors that contribute to Chinese counselors’ LGB affirmative counselor competence, this study examined how situational (e.g., LGB experiences) and cognitive factors (e.g., internal beliefs) contribute to such competence in light of cultural learning theory. A total of 672 counselors (79.40% female; Mage = 36.33 years, SD = 7.87) from Mainland China completed an online survey. They provided information about demographics and LGB experiences (i.e., hours of LGB training, number of LGB clients, and number of LGB friends) and completed the Essentialist Beliefs Scale, Social Dominance Orientation Scale, and Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS). Structural equation modeling results indicated that number of LGB friends was positively associated with SOCCS–Attitude. Number of LGB clients had the greatest effect on SOCCS–Skill, followed by hours of LGB training and number of LGB friends. Lower discreteness belief, higher immutability belief, and lower social dominance orientation were associated with higher level of SOCCS–Attitude. Higher universality belief was associated with higher levels of SOCCS–Knowledge and Skill. Interestingly, more hours of LGB training were not associated with higher levels of SOCCS–Attitude and Knowledge. In addition, counselors’ gender or sexual orientation did not moderate the effects of LGB experiences and internal beliefs on LGB affirmative counselor competence. The implications for these findings are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)